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Pentoxifylline Decreases Dialysis Risk in Patients With Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease- http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cpt.173/abstract
"Few studies evaluated the effects of pentoxifylline on hard endpoints in patients with predialysis stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, we tried to explore the effects of pentoxifylline and its interaction with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade on the development of endstage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality. This nationwide cohort study retrospectively included patients who had a serum creatinine level of >6 mg/dL and received erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) between 2000 and 2010. We analyzed 7,366 pentoxifylline users and 7,366 propensity score-matched nonusers. Using Cox proportional hazard models, pentoxifylline reduced the risks of ESRD and the composite renal outcome but not that of mortality. In terms of the risks of developing ESRD, pentoxifylline alone exerted a comparable beneficial effect to combined therapy with an RAAS inhibitor and greater renoprotection than RAAS inhibitor monotherapy. This study suggests pentoxifylline is efficacious in slowing progression to ESRD in patients with predialysis stage 5 CKD."